2018Araneda, Paola; Sielfeld, Walter; Bonacic, Cristián; Ibarra, José Tomás. Bird diversity along elevational gradients in the Dry Tropical Andes of northern Chile: The
potential role of Aymara indigenous
traditional agriculture
PLoS ONE 13(12): e0207544https://
Understanding diversity patterns along environmental gradients lies at the heart of community ecology and conservation. Previous studies have found variation in bird diversity and density along “natural” elevational gradients in the Tropical Andes Hotspot. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about how bird communities respond to traditional land-use patterns, in association with other multiple drivers, along elevations. In the present study, we investigated biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic sources of variation associated with bird species diversity, density and turnover along a 3000-m elevational gradient, in southern limit of the Tropical Andes Hotspot, northern Chile. Over four seasons, we conducted 472 bird point count surveys and established 118 plots distributed across the Desert, Pre-Puna, Puna and High-Andean belts, where biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic factors were measured. We used mixed-effects models to estimate alpha diversity and multinomial Poisson mixture models to estimate species density, accounting for detectability. Species diversity and density increased until 3300 masl and then declined. This type of elevational pattern is characteristic of dry-based mountains, where environmental conditions are suitable at midelevations. Habitats shaped by traditional Aymara indigenous agriculture, associated with relatively high vegetation heterogeneity, hosted the highest values of bird diversity and density. Species turnover was structured by habitat type, while elevational ranges of most species were restricted to three relatively discrete assemblages that replaced each other along the gradient. Our study revealed a hump-shaped relationship between elevation and bird diversity and density in the Dry Tropical Andes Biodiversity Hotspot, supporting a diversity pattern characteristic of dry-based mountains of the world. Traditional Aymara agriculture may have constructed ecological niches for biodiversity at mid-elevations, enhancing vegetation heterogeneity, thus providing resources for resident and rare species. Increasing
loss of traditional land-use may present a threat to the bird community in the Tropical Andes Hotspot.
2018Arriagada, Rodrigo; Villaseñor, Adrián; Rubiano, Eliana; Cotacachi, David y Judith Morrison
Analysing the impacts of PES programmes beyond economic rationale: Perceptions of ecosystem services provision associated to the Mexican caseEcosystem Services 29(A):116 for Ecosystem Services programmes represent an important conservation policy worldwide. Despite their popularity, there is still a shortage of evidence regarding whether or not these schemes improve quality of life and generate desired behavioural changes. In this paper, we use a dataset from participants that enrolled in a conservation program on 2007, and from non-participants in the same program. Mexican indigenous communities were interviewed to evaluate program impacts on a range of land use and socio-economic variables between 2007 and 2013. In response to the theory that perceptions of ecosystem services mediate changes in behaviour regarding conservation, we seek to test whether participation in the programme makes it more likely for respondents to identify a higher number of ecosystem services obtained from the forest. Our results are in line with recent socio-economic evaluations of these programmes that conclude that, at best, such conservation programmes do not harm their participants. However, we are also able to provide evidence that participation in the Mexican programme increases participants’ perception of the provisioning, regulating and cultural ecosystem services obtained from the forest. These results add more evidence to the thin literature on the behavioural dimensions of ecosystem services and the kind of responses of program participants to the conservation of those services.
2017James Rodríguez-Echeverry, Cristián Echeverría, Carlos Oyarzún y Luis MoralesSpatial congruence between biodiversity and ecosystem services in a forest landscape in southern Chile: basis for conservation planningBosque 38(3): 495-506 is a need for a better understanding on how biodiversity and ecosystem services are spatially related and assess to what extent the conservation of biodiversity will ensure the provision of services. In the Río Cruces watershed (Chile) the spatial congruence between biodiversity and water supply, erosion control and soil accumulation services was assessed using spatially explicit models, geographically weighted regression and overlap analyses. Biodiversity registered a positive spatial relationship with the three ecosystem services. The local R2value explained up to 95 %, 68 % and 37 % of the variance for soil accumulation, water supply and erosion control, respectively. High spatial congruence (> 67 %) was registered between biodiversity and ecosystem services hotspots. Our study recommends that decision makers develop plans and share efforts for conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services in 43 subwatersheds, which are 16.4 % of the subwatersheds studied. We suggest that these efforts must be an integral part of environmental policies that need to be generated by the Chilean government.
2017Foster, William; Modrego, Félix; McCann, Philip; Olfert, Rose.Location and entrepreneurship: insights from a spatially-explicit occupational choice model with an application to ChileBosque 38(3): 495-506
Journal of Regional Science 57(4): 669-697 choice and heterogeneous managerial ability enter a spatial Dixit‐Stiglitz setting, linking location, wages and regional entrepreneurship rates. Market potential has a positive partial effect and wages a negative partial effect on the regional supply of entrepreneurs, both balancing in equilibrium with endogenous wages. Market potential increases profits, but also the opportunity cost of entrepreneurship. In the long‐run equilibrium with perfect mobility, the cut‐off level of ability determining selection into entrepreneurship will be the same across regions; moreover, regional differences in entrepreneurship rates depend only in differences in average fixed costs of firms. An empirical application is provided for Chile.

2017Fuentes, Rodrigo; León-Muñoz, Jorge y Cristián EcheverríaSpatially explicit modelling of the impacts of land-use and land-cover change on nutrient inputs to an oligotrophic lakeInternational Journal of Remote Sensing 38(24): 7531-7550 and land-cover has a relevant role in nutrient fluxes at the watershed scale. Rivers are the natural bridges between terrestrial and aquatic systems where water, nutrients, and sediments, among others, are transferred through land–margin and margin–aquatic interactions. In this regard, it is necessary to gain further understanding of the influence of land-use and land-cover changes (LULCCs) on aquatic systems characterized by high quality standards but whose watersheds are subject to recent LULCC. In this study, a spatially explicit model (N-SPECT) was applied with the purpose of assessing whether, in southern-central Chile, the recent LULCC could alter the nutrient input to oligotrophic lakes (total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP)). We hypothesize that maintaining the LULCC would force a significant increase in nutrient inputs, mainly due to deforestation and agricultural expansion into areas of greater slopes and altitudes currently covered by temperate forest. The results showed degradation and deforestation with annual rates of loss of old-growth forest close to 1%. Similarly, significant clearance for agricultural purposes near rivers and coastal areas was noted. This condition will cause an increase in nutrient inputs from tributary rivers, and it is estimated that by 2020, under current LULCC trajectories, the TN loads entering the lake will be 1.11 times higher than those registered in the mid-1980s. The results indicate that to preserve and/or restore the quality of aquatic south-central Chilean ecosystems, it is necessary to modify the current LULCC: (1) to fundamentally stop the temperate forest degradation and (2) to regulate the expansion of agricultural land in steeper and higher areas, where important forest still exists.
2017León-Muñoz, Jorge; Echeverría, Cristian; Fuentes, Rodrigo y Felipe AburtoHow is the land use-cover changing in drinking water catchments in the coastal range of south-central Chile (35° - 38.5° S)?Bosque 38(1): 203-209

Different studies on land use-cover change (LUCC) have revealed substantial loss of native forests in south-central Chile in the last decades. However, little information exists about LUCC in drinking water catchments (DWC) affected by water scarcity. We analyzed the LUCC in 25 catchments that supply water to urban and rural communities in the coastal range of south-central Chile, between 1986 and 2011. Results showed that 21 DWC exhibited an increase in intensity of land uses, from native forest and shrublands to forest plantations of exotic species. A higher rate of deforestation was observed in unprotected catchments (2.7 % ± 1.5 year-1) than in catchments protected by the State (0.5 % ± 0.4 year-1). Our spatio-temporal assessment of LUCC at the catchment scale reveals the high degree of pressure in land condition in critical DWC. It is urgent to develop a landscape planning strategy to conserve drinking water source areas in changing landscapes.
2017Roco, Lisandro; Bravo-Ureta, Boris; Alejandra Engler y Roberto JaraThe impact of climatic change adaptation on agricultural productivity in Central Chile: A stochastic production frontier approachSustainability (Switzerland) 9(9), 1648Adaptation to climate change is imperative to sustain and promote agricultural productivity growth, and site-specific empirical evidence is needed to facilitate policy making. Therefore, this study analyses the impact of climate change adaptation on productivity for annual crops in Central Chile using a stochastic production frontier approach. The data come from a random sample of 265 farms located in four municipalities with different agro-climatic conditions. To measure climate change adaptation, a set of 14 practices was used in three different specifications: binary variable, count and index; representing decision, intensity and quality of adaptation, respectively. The aforementioned alternative variables were used in three different stochastic production frontier models. Results suggest that the use of adaptive practices had a significant and positive effect on productivity; the practice with the highest impact on productivity was irrigation improvement. Empirical results demonstrate the relevance of climate change adaptation on farmers’ productivity and enrich the discussion regarding the need to implement adaptation measures.
2017Otavo, Samuel Eduardo y Cristián EcheverríaFragmentación progresiva y pérdida de hábitat de bosques naturales en uno de los hotspot mundiales de biodiversidadRevista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 88(4): 924-935 conocimiento del estado de fragmentación y transformación de un paisaje boscoso es crucial para una adecuada planificación y conservación de la biodiversidad. En Chile se encuentra uno de los hotspots mundiales de biodiversidad; dentro de este, se encuentra la cordillera de Nahuelbuta, la cual es considerada como un área de alto valor de biodiversidad y de intensa presión antrópica. A pesar de ello, no se cuenta con información precisa sobre el grado de transformación de su paisaje y su estado de conservación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el estado del paisaje y los cambios espacio-temporales de los bosques nativos en dicha cordillera. A partir de imágenes Landsat de los años 1986 y 2011, se generaron mapas temáticos de usos del suelo. Se observó una pérdida de bosque nativo del 33% en 25 años asociada principalmente a la sustitución por plantaciones forestales. Los cambios en los patrones espaciales de las coberturas y usos del suelo revelan una profunda transformación del paisaje y una fragmentación avanzada de los bosques nativos. Se discute como estos patrones de cambio amenazan la persistencia de diversas especies endémicas con alto riesgo de extinción. De continuar estos procesos antrópicos, estas especies podrían enfrentar un aumento en su riesgo de extinción.
2017Gatica-Saavedra, Paula; Echeverría, Cristian y Cara R. NelsonEcological indicators for assessing ecological success of forest restoration: a world review: Indicators for forest restorationRestoration Ecology 25(6): 850–857

Restoration is increasingly being used to reverse degradation and destruction of forest ecosystems. With increasing investment in restoration, there is an urgent need to develop effective programs to assess treatment efficacy and effects. We conducted a global review of forest restoration assessments, in order to identify geographic trends in the locations where assessments have been implemented and the specific ecological attributes (ecosystem composition, structure, and function) and indicators being used to measure effects. We found that the number of forest restoration assessments varied by region and was not related to degree of degradation or restoration need. Some regions, like Africa, which have experienced high rates of forest loss and degradation, had few assessments. The majority (43%) of assessments included indicators for only two of three key ecological attributes (composition‐structure or composition‐function) and assessments on average used fewer than three indicators per attribute. The most commonly employed indicators for composition were richness and abundance of plant species and for structure were height and diameter of trees, variables that are generally relatively easy to measure. The use of functional indicators has been increasing over time and they are now more commonly used than structural indicators. The most common functional indicators were soil functions. Most investigators evaluated treatment effects for 6–10 years after implementation. Our findings related to gaps in analysis of ecological indicators can serve as a guide for developing monitoring and assessment protocols for current global forest restoration initiatives by 2020–2030.
2017Pablo Cuenca y Cristián EcheverríaHow do protected landscapes associated with high biodiversity and population levels change? PLoS ONE

Most protected areas (PA) try to limit logging of forests by means of restrictions on access and use, especially in areas where local communities coexist with the forests and depend on resources derived from PAs. In such contexts, achieving full or effective protection of the forests is almost impossible. This fact has led to researching beyond PAs boundaries in order to examine large surrounding landscapes with multiple forms of properties and restriction on forests use. The present study assessed the change in forest cover and fragmentation between 1990 and 2014, in addition to the drivers that explain such changes in a landscape with the presence of PAs and high-density population belonging to the Chocó-Darien biodiversity hotspot. Results indicated differences in the extent and spatial patterns of change in forest cover of PAs and their surrounding landscapes. Two PAs exhibited a tendency to increase fragmentation and lose their forests in comparison with the stable protection of the forests in other PAs during this period. However, the greatest change in forest cover and fragmentation was observed in the surrounding landscapes, where the best connection to markets and transport networks were the dominating deforestation drivers. Our findings corroborated that the PAs were a shield against the deforestation of the tropical Andean forest, especially in landscapes with high-density population. However, the fragmentation of the forest cannot be avoided around the PAs limits. It is expected that, if this tendency continues in the future, the biodiversity in the Chocó-Darien hotspot will be seriously affected.
2017Claudia Hunecke, Alejandra Engler, Roberto Jara-Rojas y P. Marijn PoortvlietUnderstanding the Role of Social Capital in Adoption Decisions: An Application to Irrigation Technology Agricultural Systems, social capital has gained importance in explaining technology adoption decisions by farmers. In this paper, we examine the impact of social capital on the adoption of irrigation technology and irrigation scheduling among wine producers in Central Chile. We propose three hypotheses: that trust and networks affect positively the adoption of both technologies (H1 and H2) and that trust is positively related to networks (H3). First, we identify seven different components of social capital: general trust, trust in institutions, trust in water communities, norms, formal networks, informal networks, and size of networks. Second, we estimate two Partial Least Squares models using as endogenous variables irrigation technology adoption and adoption of irrigation scheduling. Both models tested confirm the relevance of our interpretation of the use of social capital and its implications in understanding producers' behaviour towards adoption of technologies. The three hypotheses tested positive. Trust in institutions, and formal and informal networks have a positive impact on the adoption of both technologies. General trust has a positive relationship with formal and informal networks. Human capital also has a strong relationship with networks, which allows us to argue that networks are the main catalysts of social capital. As expected, physical and human capital have a positive and significant relationship with adoption. Our results support that extension efforts should consider social networks, not just economic or individual-level predictors, in promoting agricultural innovations.
2017Jara-Rojas, Roberto; Bravo-Ureta, Boris; Solis, Daniel y Daniela Martínez ArriagadaTechnical efficiency and marketing channels among small-scale farmers: evidence for raspberry production in ChileInternational Food and Agribusiness Management Association 21(3): 351 study analyses technical efficiency (TE) levels among small-scale raspberry producers in Central Chile. Special attention is given in to investigate the impact of the marketing channel used by the farmers on their technical performance. The data used in this study were obtained from a farm-level survey of 139 small-scale raspberry farmers. A stochastic production frontier model was used to evaluate the association between TE, extension, training and farmers’ decisions to sell their production directly to the agro-industry or indirectly through an informal middleman. The empirical results show that the decision to sell raspberries using informal channels is negatively associated with farm productivity and revenues. The analysis also reveals a positive relationship between TE and income among experienced and trained farmers. Implementing food quality and safety standards was also found decisive in increasing farm income. Policy implications stemming from
2017Jara-Rojas, Roberto; Bravo-Ureta, Boris; Solis, Daniel y Daniela Martínez ArriagadaTechnical efficiency and marketing channels among small-scale farmers: evidence for raspberry production in ChileInternational Food and Agribusiness Management Association 21(3): 351 study analyses technical efficiency (TE) levels among small-scale raspberry producers in Central Chile. Special attention is given in to investigate the impact of the marketing channel used by the farmers on their technical performance. The data used in this study were obtained from a farm-level survey of 139 small-scale raspberry farmers. A stochastic production frontier model was used to evaluate the association between TE, extension, training and farmers’ decisions to sell their production directly to the agro-industry or indirectly through an informal middleman. The empirical results show that the decision to sell raspberries using informal channels is negatively associated with farm productivity and revenues. The analysis also reveals a positive relationship between TE and income among experienced and trained farmers. Implementing food quality and safety standards was also found decisive in increasing farm income. Policy implications stemming from
2017Esposito, Lucio y Adrián Villaseñor Relative deprivation: Measurement issues and predictive role for body image dissatisfactionSocial Science & Medicine 19210.1016/j.socscimed.2017.09.029The study of how relative standing in the socioeconomic hierarchy affects health outcomes faces a number of challenges. Two critical issues are the choice of the indicator quantifying relative standard of living and the collinearity which typically arises when absolute standard of living is controlled for. We address these issues by taking into examination linear and concave measures of relative deprivation and by showing that collinearity can be lessened through manipulations of the measures' formulae. Importantly, we argue that the two issues are intertwined and should be jointly considered by researchers. We illustrate the points above using nationally representative data from Mexico (N = 44,214) and studying relative deprivation as a predictor of body image dissatisfaction - a growing public health concern whose effects go well beyond eating disorders. Controlling for several individual characteristics, binary and multinomial logit regressions indicate relative deprivation as a risk factor for body image dissatisfaction. By conducting subsample analyses and by introducing an interaction term between gender and relative deprivation, we show evidence of a gender-based heterogeneity in the role of relative deprivation - which predicts feeling smaller than desired for both females and males and feeling larger than desired for females but not for males. This heterogeneity is discussed in the light of the different social pressures females and males face for slenderness and muscularity. Our evidence enriches the literature on socioeconomic gradients in health, pointing to an additional domain in which a low position in the socioeconomic ladder translates into greater likelihood of developing health problems and adopting health-compromising behaviors.
2017Esposito, Lucio y Adrián VillaseñorWealth Inequality, Educational Environment and School Enrolment: Evidence from MexicoThe Journal of Development Studies data from the extended section of the 2010 Mexican census (2.9 million households), we study how school enrolment is associated with wealth inequality and with the educational environment the child is exposed to at the household and municipal levels. We provide robust evidence of wealth inequality as a negative predictor of school enrolment for children in primary, secondary and high school age ranges while a positive role is played by the educational environment. Through the introduction of interaction terms, we account for how economic and educational variables are intertwined at both the household and the municipal level, and we are able to illustrate the considerable heterogeneity in the role of adult education for households at different standards of living.
2017Corbera, Esteve; Martin, Adrián; Villaseñor, Adrián y Oliver Springate-BaginskiWealth Inequality, Educational Environment and School Enrolment: Evidence from Mexico
Sowing the seeds of sustainable rural livelihoods? An assessment of Participatory Forest Management through REDD+ in Tanzania
Land Use Policy

Participatory forest management (PFM) initiatives have emerged worldwide for a range of aims including to improve forest governance, enhance resource conservation and to increase rural people’s access to and benefits from forest resources. Some of these initiatives have also received climate finance support to enhance their impact on mitigation. However, their effects on forest governance and livelihoods are complex and remain poorly studied. In this article, we address this gap by analysing governance and livelihood changes in a PFM initiative in Tanzania that has received funding as a REDD+ pilot site. Based on qualitative governance analysis and quantitative livelihood panel data (2011–2014) that compares villages and households within and outside the project, we find that improvements to forest governance are substantial in project villages compared to control villages, while changes in income have been important but statistically insignificant, and driven by a regional sesame cash crop boom unrelated to enhanced forestry revenues. Focusing on whether PFM had enhanced other wealth indicators including household conditions and durable assets, our analysis shows again no significant differences between participant and control villages, although the participant villages do have, on average, a greater level of durable assets. Overall, our findings are positive regarding forest governance improvements but inconclusive regarding livelihood effects, which at least in the short term seem to benefit more from agricultural intensification than forestry activities, whose benefits might become more apparent over a longer time period. In conclusion we emphasize the need for moving towards longer term monitoring efforts, improving understandings of local dynamics of change, particularly at a regional rather than community level, and defining the most appropriate outcome variables and cost-effective systems of data collection or optimization of existing datasets if we are to better capture the complex impacts of PFM initiatives worldwide.
2017Esposito, Lucio y Adrián VillaseñorRelative Deprivation and School Enrolment. Evidence from MexicoReview of Income and Wealth

Using a large dataset (2.9 million households), we provide solid evidence of relative deprivation as being a negative correlate of school enrolment in Mexico, absolute standard of living being controlled for. This result is robust to a number of specifications, and to the use of linear and less than linear indices of relative deprivation. In addition, we find that marginal effects of relative deprivation are stronger at higher standards of living and for older children.
2016Rodrigo Arriagada, Cristian Echeverría y Danisa MoyaCreating Protected Areas on Public Lands: Is There Room for Additional Conservation?Plos One evaluations of the effectiveness of PAs have relied on indirect estimates based on comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Such methods can be biased when protection is not randomly assigned. We add to the growing literature on the impact of PAs by answering the following research questions: What is the impact of Chilean PAs on deforestation which occurred between 1986 and 2011? How do estimates of the impact of PAs vary when using only public land as control units? We show that the characteristics of the areas in which protected and unprotected lands are located differ significantly. To satisfactorily estimate the effects of PAs, we use matching methods to define adequate control groups, but not as in previous research. We construct control groups using separately non-protected private areas and non-protected public lands. We find that PAs avoid deforestation when using unprotected private lands as valid controls, however results show no impact when the control group is based only on unprotected public land. Different land management regimes, and higher levels of enforcement inside public lands may reduce the opportunity to add additional conservation benefits when the national systems for PAs are based on the protection of previously unprotected public lands. Given that not all PAs are established to avoid deforestation, results also admit the potential for future studies to include other outcomes including forest degradation (not just deforestation), biodiversity, wildlife, primary forests (not forests in general), among others.
2016Rodrigo Valdés, Stephan Von Cramon-Taubadel y Alejandra EnglerWhat drives stock market integration? An analysis using agribusiness stocksAgricultural Economics

This article explores the drivers of regional stock market integration with a focus on the agribusiness sector across relevant regional trade blocs around the world. We implement panel cointegration models to analyze the stock indices of agribusiness firms in the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR), European Union (EU), Asia‐Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), and North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Based on the literature on market integration and stock return pricing, we identify nine possible determinants of stock market integration, which we separate into three categories: individual market performance, macroeconomic conditions, and agricultural trade. In our analysis, we account for agriculture‐specific factors to control for possible structural shifts in financial markets regimes by including the two main commodity price bubbles during last 20 years. Our results show that most of the variables included in our categories have been important factors in promoting regional stock market integration. Moreover, integration among regional stock markets was strengthened by the implementation of trade agreements. This effect is stronger in trade blocs with fewer members, such as NAFTA and MERCOSUR, compared with larger and more heterogeneous blocs, such as the EU and APEC.
2016Robert Heilmayr, Cristian Echeverría, Rodrigo Fuentes y Eric F. LambinA plantation-dominated forest transition in ChileApplied Geography

As one of the few countries in Latin America to have reversed persistent losses in tree cover, Chile may hold important insights for forest transition theory. However, existing studies have not provided methodologically consistent analyses at sufficient temporal and spatial scales to properly assess the state of Chile's forest transition. In the current study, we generate high-resolution maps of Chilean land use change between 1986, 2001 and 2011. We couple remote sensing with a review of historic assessments of Chile's forest resources to document long-term trends in forest extent. This historical review identifies multiple discrete forest transitions throughout Chile's history. These fluctuations in forest clearing emphasize that the cultural, economic and political forces that precipitate forest transitions can all be reversed. The remote sensing analysis calls into question official statistics indicating an expansion of native forests between 1986 and 2011. We find that increases in forest cover were largely driven by the expansion of forest plantations, rather than through native forest regeneration. Plantation forests directly displaced native forests in many locations, especially during the 1986–2001 period. Nevertheless, declines in the rate of forest conversion during the 2001–2011 period suggest that plantations are beginning to ease pressure on native forests.
2016William Foster, Gustavo Anríquez, Oscar Melo, Daniel Yupanqui y Jorge OrtegaGeographic disparities in rural land appreciation in a transforming economy: Chile, 1980 to 2007Land Use Policy paper reports on a research effort to gather and analyze rural land value data during a period of unprecedented growth in Chilean agriculture. This information is important to understand the geographical distribution of gains associated with the transformation of the rural sector during a period of rapid development, trade liberalization and transition toward a predominant emphasis on export earnings in agriculture. A large set of data of rural land transactions for 1980, 1990, 1997 and 2007 were collected from a sample of land registry offices. Results show notable declines in the physical size of transactions, significant average annual rates of increase in real per-hectare values, and a small-parcel premium for rural land associated with non-farm land use. Overall real land values have increased faster than the average annual growth rates in the agricultural sector’s value added, suggesting that land owners have gained proportionately more than other claimants to sectoral income. Tests show significant geographic disparities in annual rates of land appreciation across regions and municipalities. Consistent with differential net gains due to integration into world markets and the geographic heterogeneity of suitability for different land uses, northern areas, with greater emphasis on export-oriented crops, have experienced the highest average rates of annual real per-hectare value growth, in the order of 7 percent, while southern areas, emphasizing traditional crops and pastures/livestock, have experienced growth rates of half that. Geographic disparities are also explained by proximity to urban population and income centers.
2016Diego Ignacio Rodríguez, Gustavo Anríquez y José Luis RiverosFood security and livestock: The case of Latin America and the CaribbeanCiencia e investigación agraria, 43(1), 5-15 main hurdle to achieving food security in Latin America and the Caribbean is the inability of many poor families to access the foods necessary for a healthy diet, in a context in which food prices and family incomes are fundamental determinants. Animal husbandry plays a key role in the food security of the region, providing products rich in high-quality proteins and micronutrients and is vital for millions of households that depend on livestock for their livelihoods to generate income and have access to basic services. Furthermore, the production and trade of livestock products contributes to the stabilization of the food supply, acting as a buffer during economic crises and disasters both at the individual and community levels. Small farm agriculture is especially important in this scenario, given that most of the production of foods of animal origin depends on this sector and that the majority of the 47 million people who suffer from hunger in our continent live in rural areas. In this complex scenario, a good understanding of the interrelations between food security and the livestock sector, both at the national and household level, is fundamental for the design and implementation of policies that strengthen family livestock production as an essential pillar in regional food security.
2016Pablo Cuenca, Rodrigo Arriagada y Cristian EcheverríaHow much deforestation do protected areas avoid in tropical Andean landscapes?Environmental Science & Policy

For many decades, protected areas (PAs) have been considered by decision makers and conservation practitioners as one of the most common policies to promote biodiversity conservation. Diverse studies have assessed the impact of conservation policies at global and regional levels by comparing deforestation rates between PAs and unprotected areas. Most of these studies are based on conventional methods and could overestimate the avoided deforestation of PAs by omitting from their analyses the lack of randomness in the allocation of forest protection. We demonstrate that estimates of effectiveness can be substantially improved by controlling for biases along dimensions that are observable and testing the sensitivity of estimates of potential hidden biases. We used matching methods to evaluate the impact on deforestation of Ecuador's tropical Andean forest protected-area system between 1990 and 2008. We found that protection reduced deforestation in approximately 6% of the protected forests. These would have been deforested had they not been protected. Conventional approaches to estimate conservation impact, which fail to control for observable covariates correlated with both protection and deforestation, substantially overestimate avoided deforestation. Our conclusions are robust to potential hidden bias, as well as to changes in modeling assumptions. In addition, it is assumed that this research will help decision-making in the framework of international climate change mitigation policies, such as REDD+.
2016Alejandra Engler, Roberto Jara-Rojas y Carlos BoppEfficient use of water resources in vineyards: A recursive joint estimation for the adoption of irrigation technology and schedulingWater Resources Management
Water Resour Manage (2016) 30: 5369 constraints are becoming a major restriction for different economic sectors. The agricultural sector is one of the most affected, but according to experts, the use of irrigation technologies and scheduling can keep productivity high while diminishing the use of water resources. Although irrigation technology is available, for various reasons the rate of adoption is rather low. This article uses a recursive bivariate probit model to examine the impact of social, human, and physical capital on the adoption of irrigation technology and scheduling. The study was conducted in vineyard farms in the Maule and O’Higgins regions of Chile, from which a sample of 452 large, medium, and smallholders was drawn. The average planted area is 37 hectares, ranging from 0.5 to 810 hectares. The adoption rate of irrigation technology is 43 % and for scheduling instruments, 23 %. Results show that adopting irrigation technology increases the chance of adopting scheduling by 31 % and that these adoption decisions are jointly made. While size of the vineyard is relevant in irrigation technology adoption, it is not for scheduling and, in contrast, the use of the Internet is relevant for adopting scheduling but not for irrigation technology. A relevant result is that networks and trust are important factors in explaining the adoption of both technologies.
2016Modrego, F., McCann, P., Foster, W. E. y Olfert, M. R.Location and Entrepreneurship: Insights from a Spatially-Explicit Occupational Choice Model with an Application to ChileJournal of Regional Science

Occupational choice and heterogeneous managerial ability enter a spatial Dixit‐Stiglitz setting, linking location, wages and regional entrepreneurship rates. Market potential has a positive partial effect and wages a negative partial effect on the regional supply of entrepreneurs, both balancing in equilibrium with endogenous wages. Market potential increases profits, but also the opportunity cost of entrepreneurship. In the long‐run equilibrium with perfect mobility, the cut‐off level of ability determining selection into entrepreneurship will be the same across regions; moreover, regional differences in entrepreneurship rates depend only in differences in average fixed costs of firms. An empirical application is provided for Chile.
2015Rodrigo Arriagada, Erin. O Sills, Paul Ferraro y Subhrendu PattanayakDo Payments pay off? Evidence from participation in Costa Rica’s PES programPLoS ONE 10(7): e013154410.1371/journal.pone.0131544Payments for environmental services (PES) are often viewed as a way to simultaneously improve conservation outcomes and the wellbeing of rural households who receive the payments. However, evidence for such win-win outcomes has been elusive. We add to the growing literature on conservation program impacts by using primary household survey data to evaluate the socioeconomic impacts of participation in Costa Rica’s PES program. Despite the substantial cash transfers to voluntary participants in this program, we do not detect any evidence of impacts on their wealth or self-reported well-being using a quasi-experimental design. These results are consistent with the common claim that voluntary PES do not harm participants, but they beg the question of why landowners participate if they do not benefit. Landowners in our sample voluntarily renewed their contracts after five years in the program and thus are unlikely to have underestimated their costs of participation. They apparently did not invest additional income from the program in farm inputs such as cattle or hired labor, since both decreased as a result of participation. Nor do we find evidence that participation encouraged moves off-farm. Instead, semi-structured interviews suggest that participants joined the program to secure their property rights and contribute to the public good of forest conservation. Thus, in order to understand the social impacts of PES, we need to look beyond simple economic rationales and material outcomes.
2015Cristian Adasme-Berríos, Mercedes Sánchez, Roberto Jara-Rojas, Alejandra Engler, Marcelo Rodríguez y Marcos MoraWho are the potential organic produce consumers in an export-oriented country?: A CHAID approachRev. FCA UNCUYO. 2015. 47(1): 193-208 demand for organic fruits and vegetables (F&V) is growing worldwide, creating market opportunities for developing countries as major suppliers. However, most export-oriented developing countries such as Chile have an undeveloped domestic market for organic products. This article identifies the segments of potential consumers of organic F&V in Central Chile using an exploratory CHAID model. A questionnaire was administered by surveying a random sample of 425 F&V consumers in central Chile. The results of the CHAID model suggest two segments of potential consumers of organic F&V. Both groups show awareness of the concept of organic food. Additionally, the first segment perceives organic agriculture to have ethical benefits to the society and considers organic F&V as healthy and nutritious; this group has a probability of over 80% to consume organic F&V. The second segment shows less awareness of the ethical benefits to society and its probability of consuming organic F&V depends on family income level. We discuss major implications for further studies on organic consumers.
2015Lisandro Roco, Alejandra Engler, Boris E. Bravo-Ureta y Roberto Jara-RojasFarmers’ perception of climate change in Mediterranean ChileRegional Environmental Change 15 (5): 867-879• Meteorologists predict that climate change will have an increasing impact on ecosystems and agricultural production; however, many farmers do not have a clear perception of climate change or how it may affect their crop yields and overall farming operation in the near future. This study examines climate change perceptions in From a policy point of view, it is important to give all farmers information that will help them to adapt to climate change using appropriate farming technologies and practices. Projects and programs designed to enhance understanding of the consequences of climate change will help farmers to develop the management ability to cope with climate risk four rural municipalities in Central Chile, and the effect that exposure to meteorological information has on such perceptions, using a survey conducted in 2011. It uses a probit model to identify the socioeconomic and productive factors associated with what we define as a ‘‘clear perception’’ of climate change. Most farmers in this survey recognize that there have been changes in temperature and precipitation patterns during the last 24 years: About 62% perceive that the average temperatures have increased; 93% that precipitation has decreased; and 87% that droughts are more frequent. The econometric model shows the significance of education and access to meteorological information for climate change perception. The results reveal that younger, more educated producers and those who own their land tend to have a clearer perception of climate change than older, less educated, or tenant farmers. From a policy point of view, it is important to give all farmers information that will help them to adapt to climate change using appropriate farming technologies and practices. Projects and programs designed to enhance understanding of the consequences of climate change will help farmers to develop the management ability to cope with climate risk.

2015Cristián Echeverría, Cecilia Smith-Ramírez, James Aronson y José I. Barrera-CatañoGood news from Latin America and the Caribbean: national and international restoration networks are moving aheadRestoration Ecology 23 (1): 1-3. of ecosystems is ongoing in Latin America but there is also a strong upswing in conservation and restoration efforts. SIACRE – the Ibero‐American and Caribbean Society for Ecological Restoration – is playing a key role in coordinating and promoting this trend at international, national, and subnational levels. In October 2014, SIACRE members organized the first national seminar on ecological restoration in Chile, with participants representing both academic and non‐academic sectors. This seminar served as the catalyst for this essay and was an historic event at the national level. Much work has been underway in the science and practice of restoration in Chile, but until now it has been fragmented. This first national seminar enabled helped the principal strengths and challenges that Chile has and must face in the transdisciplinary domain of ecological restoration. Since 2004, various meetings have been organized in the region, in order to communicate the importance of restoration, especially in Mexico, Cuba, Colombia, Brazil, and more recently in Chile and Argentina. Here we trace the history of national and subnational restoration networks in Latin America and the Caribbean, and of SIACRE, and then outline some goals and challenges for the coming years.
2015Rodrigo Valdés, Stephan Von Cramon-Taubadel y Alejandra EnglerTransaction costs and tradeliberalization: An empirical perspective from the MERCOSUR agreementFood Policy 55: 109-116. investigating the effect of trade liberalization policies on transaction costs in agricultural markets are scarce. The objective of our paper is to determine whether Brazil became more integrated with reduced transaction costs after the introduction of MERCOSUR with respect to its main agricultural trade partners, Argentina (a MERCOSUR member) and the United States (a non-MERCOSUR member). Using a threshold vector error correction model (TVECM), we estimate the transaction cost, price transmission elasticity and half-life adjustments for the most traded agricultural products between Brazil/Argentina and Brazil/United States from January 1980 to December 2012. Our findings suggest a strong MERCOSUR effect, with lower transaction costs and higher price transmission elasticity when compared to a non-agreement scenario. Moreover, the variations of both parameters are highly heterogeneous across products, depending mainly on their degree of differentiation. From a policy perspective, elements such as the sources of comparative and competitive advantages together with investment policies, specific market regulations and agricultural subsidies, among others, are mainly what influence the extent of transaction cost and market integration. Our results show that Brazil has made progress but still has considerable room for improvement in reducing barriers to agricultural products and, as a consequence, to achieving the full benefits of the MERCOSUR agreement.
2015Roberto Jara-Rojas, Alejandra Engler, Cristian Adasme-Berríos, Marcos Carrasco-Benavides, Samuel Ortega-Farias y Winston MediavillaThe Adoption of Irrigation Scheduling: The role of SEPOR Project in Central Chile. EnvironmentalEnvironmental Engineering and Management JournalThis article applies a Logit regression model to examine the factors that contribute to the adoption of irrigation scheduling by small-scale farmers in Central Chile. Socioeconomic and productive information was collected from a random sample of 112 small-scale, irrigated farms during the 2010/2011 season. One important feature of this research is the specific extension and training in irrigation scheduling received by some of the farmers. Irrigation scheduling consists of estimating the optimum water application (irrigation timing and frequency) by using information about soil, crop, and climatic conditions. Model results show that training increases the likelihood of adopting irrigation scheduling; however, extension visits show non-significant results. Results also indicate that farm size, production system, access to credit, and use of pressurized irrigation are important variables associated with adopting irrigation scheduling. From a policy standpoint, results show that if pressurized irrigation is adopted (i.e. drip or sprinkler irrigation) scheduling is more likely to be adopted as well. Another relevant policy result is that training is more effective in inducing farmers to adopt irrigation scheduling than an intervention process through extension. It is recommended that extension projects involve intensive training.
2015Roberto Jara-Rojas, Antonio Guerra, Cristian Adasme-Berrios, Alejandra Engler y Rodrigo ValdésQuality Labor Evaluation of the Cherry tree in ChileRevista Brasileña de Fruticultura 37(2): 423-431. Chile, the cherry tree has been one of the fastest growing and most profitable crops in the last ten years. However, increasing production costs, the scarcity of hired labor, and unfavorable exchange rates have reduced the productivity and competitiveness of the Chilean fruit sector. The aim of this article is to evaluate the harvest labor quality in cherry growing in Chile through the use of productivity indicators. A harvest labor evaluation system (HLES) was designed and four indicators were measured: Average Weight of Harvested Box, Average Daily Production per Worker, Percent of Export Fruit, and Percent of Fruit Discarded. Significant differences werefound between the 2010/11 season (with the HLES implementation) and the previous seasons without HLES. The average worker yield, average weight of a filled box, and fruit quality improved, while the amount of discarded fruit decreased. Hired labor management in agriculture is crucial for improving the productivity of the fresh fruit export producers. The use of HLES and the adoption of new technologies could help to solve the competitiveness problem in the Chilean fruit sector.
2015James Rodríguez. Cristián Echeverría y Laura NahuelhualImpacts of anthropogenic land-use change on populations of the endangered Patagonian cypress Fitzroya cupressoides in southern Chile: implications for its conservationOryx 49 (3): 447-452. Land-use change can have negative effects on threatened species by modifying their habitat and population dynamics. The habitat of the Endangered Patagonian cypress Fitzroya cupressoides (Mol.) Johnst. (Cupressaceae), a conifer endemic to the temperate forests of southern Chile and Argentina, has been transformed by land-use change and overexploitation. The impact of land-use change on the spatial pattern of F. cupressoides habitat from 1999 to 2011 was evaluated at the landscape level, using satellite images. Additionally, eight 20 × 25 m plots were established in four populations to assess their status. In each plot the density of F. cupressoides and the species richness of the associated plant communities were recorded and analysed, together with spatial patterns at the population and community levels. The loss of potential F. cupressoides habitat was 46% from 1999 to 2011 (38–100% for the four populations). The density of F. cupressoides was lowest in smaller habitat patches, where the number of plant species was higher and the matrix dominated by anthropogenic land-use. Land-use change was associated with a loss of potential habitat for F. cupressoides, and differences in the spatial patterns of habitat influenced the composition of remaining populations and communities. A landscape approach is recommended as a conservation planning strategy for F. cupressoides.
2015Cintia P. Souto, Paula Mathiasen, María Cristina Acosta, María Paula Quiroga, Romina Vidal-Russell, Cristian Echeverría y Andrea C. PremoliIdentifying Genetic Hotspots by Mapping Molecular Diversity of Widespread Trees: When Commonness MattersJournal of Heredity 106 (S1): 537-545. planning requires setting priorities at the same spatial scale at which decision-making processes are undertaken considering all levels of biodiversity, but current methods for identifying biodiversity hotspots ignore its genetic component. We developed a fine-scale approach based on the definition of genetic hotspots, which have high genetic diversity and unique variants that represent their evolutionary potential and evolutionary novelties. Our hypothesis is that wide-ranging taxa with similar ecological tolerances, yet of phylogenetically independent lineages, have been and currently are shaped by ecological and evolutionary forces that result in geographically concordant genetic patterns. We mapped previously published genetic diversity and unique variants of biparentally inherited markers and chloroplast sequences for 9 species from 188 and 275 populations, respectively, of the 4 woody dominant families of the austral temperate forest, an area considered a biodiversity hotspot. Spatial distribution patterns of genetic polymorphisms differed among taxa according to their ecological tolerances. Eight genetic hotspots were detected and we recommend conservation actions for some in the southern Coastal Range in Chile. Existing spatially explicit genetic data from multiple populations and species can help to identify biodiversity hotspots and guide conservation actions to establish science-based protected areas that will preserve the evolutionary potential of key habitats and species.
2015Cecilia Smith-Ramírez, Mauro E. González, Cristian Echeverría y Antonio LaraEstado actual de la restauración ecológica en Chile: perspectivas y desafíosAnales del Instituto de la Patagonia 43 (1): 11-21

La restauración ecológica es una disciplina que nació hace poco menos de 30 años. En América Latina se encuentra en proceso de formación, siendo Chile uno de los países que ha liderado en algunos aspectos dicho proceso. El objetivo de este documento es hacer una revisión del estado del arte de la Restauración Ecológica (RE) en Chile. Específicamente apuntamos a: i) hacer una breve recopilación de las primeras acciones de restauración ecológica desarrolladas en el país; ii) identificar las acciones de restauración ecológica de ecosistemas forestales que se han realizado o se encuentran en ejecución; iii) identificar las organizaciones que las han llevado a cabo, y sus principales ámbitos de acción; y iv) delinear cuales serían los desafíos y oportunidades de la RE en el país. Encontramos cerca de 60 iniciativas de RE en el país, llevándose a cabo por ONG, gobierno, empresas y universidades. A pesar de ser muchas iniciativas la superficie que abarca cada una de ellas es relativamente pequeña, sin embargo, hay compromisos de ampliarla considerablemente. La RE está siendo enseñada cada vez más en centros de educación superior. Los desafíos apuntan principalmente a generar Planes Nacionales y Regionales de RE que incluyan formas de financiamiento, soluciones pragmáticas e involucramiento social.
2015Félix Modrego, Philip McCann, William E. Foster y M. Rose OlfertRegional entrepreneurship and innovation in Chile: A knowledge matching approachSmall Business Economics 44 (3): 685-703This paper presents a model of regional innovation based on the matching of research and entrepreneurial skills. We provide a method of empirically testing the model using a dynamic knowledge matching (KM) function, which is applied to data on patent applications and new firms in Chilean municipalities for the period 2002–2008. The estimations confirm the explanatory power of the KM mechanism regarding the spatial variation of innovation in the country, a result that is largely robust to the consideration of other main hypotheses of regional innovation. This evidence warrants further consideration of the spatial dimension of innovation in the country. It also suggests that there are unexploited synergies to be had between support policies for innovation and support policies for entrepreneurship in the context of regional development initiatives.